South Africa has many fenced reserves harbouring small to medium populations of African elephants most of whom have been translocated. Elephants on fenced reserves may be exposed to various management interventions and practices such as translocations, hunting, darting, high tourism impact, contraception programs and disruption due to infrastructure maintenance.
These factors may impact the welfare of elephants. Poor elephant welfare may have serious consequences such as increased inter and intra species aggression that could result in fatalities. This is the first peer reviewed study to attempt to define behavioural and physiological welfare parameters for free-ranging elephants on small and medium sized reserves.
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